Caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, the Black Death swept through Europe, Asia, and North Africa, killing an estimated 75-200 million people. It remains one of the deadliest pandemics in recorded history.
The H1N1 influenza virus caused the Spanish Flu, infecting one-third of the world's population and resulting in an estimated 50 million deaths. It was particularly severe in young, healthy adults.
Originating in India, the third cholera pandemic spread to Asia, North America, Europe, and Africa, causing extensive outbreaks and claiming millions of lives.
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) led to the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Since the 1980s, it has claimed over 36 million lives globally, with ongoing efforts to manage and prevent its spread.
The H2N2 influenza virus caused the Asian Flu, resulting in an estimated 1-2 million deaths worldwide. It originated in East Asia and spread globally.
Originating in India, the sixth cholera pandemic affected Europe, North America, Asia, and Africa, causing millions of deaths due to contaminated water sources.
Believed to be caused by either smallpox or measles, the Antonine Plague affected the Roman Empire, leading to high mortality rates and impacting military campaigns.
The H3N2 influenza virus caused the Hong Kong Flu, resulting in an estimated 1-4 million deaths globally. It had a particular impact on older individuals.
Caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to millions of infections and deaths worldwide, impacting global health systems and economies.